Attention turned to using light-ion bombardments to add the necessary numbers of protons. Slightly radioactive elements: the most stable isotope is very long-lived, with a half-life of over two million years.
This would require, as a minimum, conversion of the WLM to an appropriate measure of dose to the lung and would also require determination of the dose and its distribution over time resulting from any transuranic element exposure for which risk estimates were desired.
Because of this high specific activity, it is used as a heat source to power thermoelectric devices used in cardiac pacemakers and space vehicles. The experimental results tend to support the concept that, at relevant levels of occupational and environmental exposures, a slightly greater risk may be associated with alpha-emitting transuranic elements dispersed throughout a tissue than concentrated in a few particles.
These were generally small lesions associated with regions of severe radiation pneumonitis.
Elements which contain at least one stable isotope. Purple — Extremely radioactive elements: the most stable isotope has a half-life less than several minutes. Both the linear and probit models gave a reasonable description of the alpha-emitter dose-response data, while neither model was useful in mimicking the extremely variable beta-gamma-emitter data over the range of observed doses.
This method took advantage of the feeble recoil imparted in the fusion reaction of helium with the highly radioactive einsteinium target.