Socio economic cultural and environmental issues in

Literature suggests some factors that underlie the spread of seasonal epidemic meningitis, though not fully elucidated [ 3 ].

economic sustainability issues

For example, higher stocks of social capital are associated with the improved ability of communities to exercise informal social control over deviant behaviors such as smoking and drinking by minorsas well as to undertake collective action for mutual benefit e.

Routine surveillance data were used to guide the selection of settlements, wards and local government areas based on the frequency of re-occurrences and magnitude of the outbreaks. As with education, an extensive literature has documented the association between income and health.

To date, however, the results of randomized trials of social support provision have been mixed. A growing number of multilevel studies have found an association between community stocks of social capital and individual health outcomes e. For example, the incidence of some cancers, notably breast cancer and melanoma, is higher among more advantaged SES groups, reflecting in part the underlying socioeconomic distribution of their risk factors.

social economic and environmental meaning

Social Support Measurement and Intervention. An alternative and commonly used measure of occupational status is the Duncan Socioeconomic Index SEIwhich combines subjective ratings of occupational prestige with objective measures of education and incomes associated with each occupation.

Social economic and environmental impacts

Case A, Paxson C. There was a low level of education among participants in the LGAs studied; highest level of education was National Certificate in Education or Diploma level. It is therefore likely that the association between schooling and health reflects both a causal effect of education on health, as well as an interaction between the level of schooling and inherited characteristics. However, we also see a shift from the social to the political and from the environmental to the ecological. Most of these studies were not indigenous, and also, no recent published study has been done in Northern Nigeria to investigate and better understand the factors that may explain the recurrent nature of the seasonal scourge. Relationships between poverty and psychopathology: A natural experiment. See Chapter 4 for a detailed discussion of personality and temperament. Finally, measures of income, poverty, and deprivation have been extended to incorporate the dimension of place. Economic status and health in childhood: The origins of the gradient. These variables are highlighted because of their robust associations with health status and their well-documented and reliable methods of measuring these variables, and because there are good reasons to believe that these variables interact with both behavioral as well as inherited characteristics to influence health. Similarly, Kebbi State remains the epicentre of seasonal epidemics of meningitis in Northwestern Nigeria, given the magnitude and recurrent nature of the outbreaks [ 7 ].

The new imported collective urban conducts, not only they have been breaking social and cultural structures but relations between individuals.

Comprehensive surveys of current areas of research in the social determinants of health can be found in existing textbooks Marmot and Wilkinson, ; Berkman and Kawachi, Childhood socioeconomic status and risk of cardiovascular disease in middle aged U. A research agenda for expanding the scope of such research has already been outlined by previous National Research Council reports.

Socio-cultural factors in healthcare

As is the case with both education and income, an association between occupational status and health may partly reflect reverse causation. Although it is not established which of these pathways matter more for health, they each are likely to contribute to the overall pattern of higher years of schooling being associated with better health status. Routine surveillance data were used to guide the selection of settlements, wards and local government areas based on the frequency of re-occurrences and magnitude of the outbreaks. The concept of relative income has been operationalized in empirical research by measures of relative deprivation at the individual level as well as by aggregate measures of income inequality at the community level. The transcripts were screened, edited, and double-checked independently by the principal investigator. While income represents the flow of resources over a defined period, wealth captures the stock of assets minus liabilities at a given point in time, and thus indicates economic reserves. The neurobiology of trust.

This means, first, an economy of means and resources and, second, amplification and consolidation of cultural values.

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environmental, cultural, social and economic sustainability