Lesson 2 univocal equivocal and analogous

We can it is true employ them as the subjects of those propositions in which we speak of the mere words themselves; as for instance, if we say, 'When is an adverb of time,' 'When is a word of four letters. Adequate, Clear and Obscure Concepts. Keynes says, "a thorough-going negative character".

univocal reading

They hold that Abstract terms denote an object, namely the quality which they connote; that their denotation and connotation coincide. That is, it signifies only one concept, and thus corresponds to only one definition.

It certainly implies that there is a more complex relationship between analogous terms and definitions.

The only satisfactory account of connotation is that which takes it to signify the fundamental characteristics which determine the application of the term. The immediate signification of a word is called its ratio and it must always be something complex. Its application to General terms is a mistake. They are wholly indeterminate in their signification: the term 'not-man' is equally applicable to what is real and to the unreal. The definitions given by Mill are as follows: A Connotative Term is one which denotes a subject and implies an attribute. Hence it is manifestly inaccurate to speak of them as the meaning of the term. So far are they from forming its connotation that though the individual may lose them, he will not thereby lose his title to his name. Thus I may increase the connotation by adding some attribute, which is found in every member of the class, as for instance crow - black crow. It is plain, that it is not every word, which can be used as a term. It is capable on the one hand of representing its object in isolation and on the other it can represent it in the light of the connection by which it is related to something else. We have worked out way back to a view of analogy of attribution, at least, that is based on univocity, a position which presumably the dictum 'analogy is analogical' was originally calculated to avoid. The logical significance of this division of terms will not have escaped notice.

Where plural forms are used, as when we speak of 'enthusiasms' or 'ineptitudes', we merely mean the various instances in which the quality was realized. It is, however, of the highest importance; and the student who has thoroughly grasped its significance, will find his labour in the study of Logic much lightened.

It is characteristic of this opposition that the two terms are not merely mutually exclusive, but they are exhaustive of all possible things. The whiteness of the animal is not the animal itself.

For a name to be Relative, it must be such as to express a concept in which the relation is the object of thought. This concept is applicable to every circle that ever was drawn. Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections are syncategorematic. Similarly the word 'thing' is analogous. All the divisions are of considerable logical importance. Peter and Andrew are not Relative names, though the two men be brothers. It is however said not to occur in that author's works.

They are wholly indeterminate in their signification: the term 'not-man' is equally applicable to what is real and to the unreal. Hence, we at once distinguish words into two classes: -- A Categorematic word is one, which can be used as a term without being accompanied by any other word.

Lesson 2 univocal equivocal and analogous
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Definitions In Semantics: Univocal, Equivocal, and Analogous Terms