God and religion according to john mackie a philosopher
Therefore, the cause of the universe is a personal one, which we call God. Plantinga argues that more beliefs than some have supposed are reasonably held without being based on the evidence of other beliefs and that there is no compelling reason to deny that some religious beliefs have this basic status.
Among the issues in the vigorous debate about Hick's view are the adequacy of the conceptual apparatus he borrows from Immanuel Kant and whether it is compatible as he means it to be with a fundamentally realist and cognitivist conception of religious belief.
This is a common view in Eastern religion but not in Christianity.
Philosophy of religion pdf
Some of these problems he is going to consider next. The chances were 1 in Problems of Evil and Suffering a. Assessing the significance of disagreement over religious belief is very different from assessing the significance of disagreement in domains where there are clearer, shared understandings of methodology and evidence. Once a state of affairs has obtained, it is unalterably or necessarily the case that it did occur. Two movements in philosophy of religion develop positions that are not in line with the traditional evidential tradition: reformed epistemology and volitional epistemology. Oxford: Oneworld, According to an anthropic principle objection, if the laws of nature and physical constants would have varied to any significant degree, there would be no conscious observers such as ourselves. As belief is almost absolutely requisite to the exciting our passions, so the passions in their turn are very favourable to belief… Admiration and surprise have the same effect as the other passions; and accordingly we may observe, that among the vulgar, quacks and projectors meet with a more easy faith upon account of their magnificent pretensions, than if they kept themselves within the bounds of moderation. The two divine attributes that have received the most extensive analytical discussion are omniscience and eternity. Evidence against religious belief have included appeal to the evident, quantity of evil in the cosmos, the success of the natural sciences, and so on. There are persons who do not believe in God, and they are reasonable in doing so. Hence, no such being exists. The narrative of an originally perfect creation through which evil entered by the choices of free agents is now generally considered to be mistaken and unhelpful. Therefore, the universe has some kind of cause of its existence.
This seems to involve the view that God's goodness is not opposed to evil but can exist alongside it for a period of time, anyway. Miracles Miracles are an essential and fundamental element of the major monotheistic religions i.
These two features of Malcolm's article foreshadow the main tendencies in the development of ontological arguments since then: 1 attention to more modal versions of the argument and 2 the attempt to rehabilitate the idea of necessary existence. While this prompting may play an evidential role in terms of the experience or ostensible perception of God, it can also warrant Christian belief in the absence of evidence or argument see K.
The Reality of God and the Problem of Evil.
Importance of philosophy of religion
Some critics of traditional ethics do this because they want to base their idea of how to behave on something other than 'goodness'. Coakley, Sarah. Second, few philosophers today advance a single argument as a proof. Is Mackie guilty of the Straw Man Fallacy? The distinction of first and second order goods and evils. Reason within the Bounds of Religion. Could free will be the nth level good described above? The most influential attempts of this type were inspired by the later writings of Ludwig Wittgenstein , particularly by his account of "language games" and their relation to forms of life. The Logic of God Incarnate. Craig, W. Winning Lotto, surviving a crash and surviving a disease. This means that at least one of them must be false. Or, putting the question to the so-called experts, if you as a trained inquirer disagree about the above matters with those whom you regard as equally intelligent and sensitive to evidence, should that fact alone bring you to modify or even abandon the confidence you hold concerning your own beliefs?
Griffiths, Paul J. Popkin, ed.
Philosophy of religion vs theology
If it is a deity or deities then you are already a believer. Since all creatures, both angels and humans, are finite and mutable, they have the capacity to choose evil, which they have done. Pike, Nelson. There is evil in the world. Arguments for the incoherence of theism have been offered for each of the divine attributes. Even if you are convinced that equally intelligent persons do not reach a similar conclusion, that alone may not empower you to deny what seems to you to be compelling. New work in the philosophy of language may be of use to theistic voluntarists. Finally, not only is this doctrine considered by Hume to be philosophically flawed and psychologically feeble, it depends on moral principles that are both unjust and corrupting. This is a common view in Eastern religion but not in Christianity.
Among theists who take this view, Marilyn Adams has argued that we should accept that we simply do not know why God has permitted horrendous evils but that within a religion that affirms, as Christianity does, God's love for individuals who suffer them, it is important to have a coherent account of how God may be seen as redeeming them Adams and Adams On this view, the belief in question must not be undermined or defeated by other, evident beliefs held by the person.
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