The exit side top will be the same for the neutral vertex, but determined by the charge of the W in the charged vertex. While each of these approaches offered deep insights, no approach led directly to a fundamental theory.

In this way, the mathematical theory of QCD not only explains how quarks interact over short distances but also the string-like behavior, discovered by Chew and Frautschi, which they manifest over longer distances.

Fundamental forces and exchange particles There are four fundamental interactions in nature: Gravitational interaction affects particles with mass.

The first to suggest the gluons of QCD explicitly were the Korean physicist Moo-Young Han and Japanese Yoichiro Nambu, who introduced the quark color charge and hypothesized that it might be associated with a force-carrying field.

All four fundamental interactions can be explained as due to the exchange of virtual particles exchange particles or gauge bosons.

QCD is a theory of fractionally charged quarks interacting by means of 8 bosonic particles called gluons. Throughout the s, different authors considered theories similar to the modern fundamental theory of quantum chromodynamics QCD as simple models for the interactions of quarks.

A neutron or proton can interact with a neutrino or antineutrino by the exchange of a Z0.

This phenomenon includes the electrostatic force, acting between charges at rest, and the combined effect of electric and magnetic forces acting between charges moving relative to each other.

Grand Unified Theories GUTs are proposals to show that the three fundamental interactions described by the Standard Model are all different manifestations of a single interaction with symmetries that break down and create separate interactions below some extremely high level of energy.

In another work that departed from classical electro-magnetism, Einstein also explained the photoelectric effect by utilizing Max Planck's discovery that light was transmitted in 'quanta' of specific energy content based on the frequency, which we now call photons.

Further work in the s, by Richard FeynmanFreeman DysonJulian Schwingerand Sin-Itiro Tomonagacompleted this theory, which is now called quantum electrodynamicsthe revised theory of electromagnetism.

Another reason to look for new forces is the discovery that the expansion of the universe is accelerating also known as dark energygiving rise to a need to explain a nonzero cosmological constantand possibly to other modifications of general relativity.

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Fundamental Forces and Exchange Particles